Research has revealed that automotive manufacturers could be able to use fiber reinforced polymer components with structural foam ribbing and reinforcements to save more than 40 kg of weight per vehicle vs. conventional all-metal designs.
The research was carried out by Henkel, a global adhesive technologies leader, and RLE International, a engineering company with global clients in the automotive industry, to show the potential of using high-performance structural foam to reduce weight in automotive body parts.
Even one tenth of a millimeter in thickness of a vehicle’s body components can mean several kilos in overall weight, with subsequent effects on fuel or electrical power consumption as well as carbon emissions. In most modern cars, the engineering limit on thickness and steel grades are a challenge and further thickness reductions can create problems in meeting the required mechanical strength and crash protection.
“In a radical new approach, we investigated the possibilities of overcoming these constraints by replacing traditional all-metal designs with hybrid fiber and structural foam reinforced polymer solutions,” says David Caro, Head of Global Engineering, OEM Design, Automotive & Transportation at Henkel.
“The results of our study have confirmed that we can achieve significant further weight reductions without compromising the safety in typical crash scenarios by optimizing the stiffness of fiber reinforced plastic frames or carriers with selective foam ribbing and reinforcements, with competitive costs.”
The hybrid parts feature a solid frame or carrier molded in higher percent fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and selective reinforcements using Henkel’s Teroson EP structural foam, a commercially available epoxy based material that delivers high strength and stiffness at extremely low weight. The foam is injected into the carrier at predefined sections, expands in the e-coat oven and creates a stiff connection between the hybrid component and adjacent parts in the body-in-white.
Non-cured, it is resistant to normal automotive washing and phosphating solutions as well as to electro-dip coating. Curing then takes place within 15 minutes or less, depending on the specific foam grade.
The comprehensive project included all major body and closure parts of an SUV vehicle, from the bumpers, fenders, pillars and doors to the rocker panel, side panels and tailgate.
“The final designs were arrived at in several consecutive optimization cycles based on extensive finite-element engineering and crash simulations in line with standard specifications”, explains Tobias Wigand, Project Manager, New Business Development, RLE International.
“In some cases, such as the side doors, our hybrid structural plastic and foam solution was even capable of exceeding the expected performance when compared with the initial all-aluminum design.”
The crash simulations performed in the study strictly adhered to demanding international automotive standards, such as offset and small overlap frontal crash testing according to the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) and the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (IIHS) at speeds of 64 and 50 km/h, respectively.
The side (or “pole”) crash performance was tested according to U.S. NCAP specifications at 32 km/h. The rear impact scenario was simulated with a 60 km/h moving barrier onto a fixed test vehicle as defined by U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 301. Another IIHS test standard was applied to establish the roof crush behavior.
Altogether, the hybrid designs with Henkel’s Teroson EP structural foam were found to pass all these tests well within the limits of deformation and intrusion, while offering substantial weight savings vs. conventional all-metal components.
Henkel and RLE International are offering their hybrid structural design technology as an encompassing joint approach from concept to launch and series production, ensuring the process security and sustainability of all development, engineering and material processes. Each design is fully engineered and optimized for all pertinent crash load cases according to customer specifications and applicable industry standards.